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DARUSAN RAMADHAN

Dr. Aliyu Muhammad Sani Misau
Islamic University of Madinah, Madinah Saudi Arabia

Darasi na Uku: Hukuncin Azumin Ramadhan

Godiya ta tabbata ga Allah Madaukakin Sarki, wanda ya halicci bayi, kuma ya shar’anta musu hukunce – hukunce da suka dace da rayuwarsu, kuma ya yi tanadin sakamako ga wanda ya kiyaye dokokinsa, da kuma alkawarin narkon azaba ga wanda ya saba masa.

Tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata ga Ma’aikin Allah, Annabi Muhammadu, da iyalan gidansa, da Sahabbansa da wadanda suka bi su da kyautatawa.

Ya ku ‘yan’uwana, lallai Azumin watan Ramadhan daya ne daga cikin rukunnan Muslunci da abubuwan da aka gina shi a kansu, Allah ya ce:
{Ya ku wadanda suka yi Imani, an wajabta muku Azumi kamar yadda aka wajabta shi a kan wadanda suka gabace ku, don ku samu tsoron Allah. Ranaku ne kirgaggu, duk wanda ya kasance maras lafiya daga cikinku ko yana halin tafiya to ya kirga a wasu ranakun daban…} [al-Baqara: 183 – 184].

Annabi (saw) ya ce: ((An gina Muslunci a kan abubuwa guda biyar; Shaidawa babu abin bauta sai Allah, kuma Annabi Muhammad ma’aikin Allah ne, da tsayar da Sallah, da ba da Zakka, da aikin Hajji, da Azumin watan Ramadhan)). Sahihul Bukhari (8), Sahihu Muslim (16).

Musulmai sun yi Ijma’i a kan farlancin Azumin watan Ramadhan da kasancewarsa abu sananne wanda babu shakka a kansa a cikin Addinin Muslunci. Kuma sun yi Ijma’i yankakke babu shakka a cikinsa; duk wanda ya yi inkarin wajabcinsa to hakika ya kafirta, za a nemi ya tuba, idan ya tuba, ya yarda da wajabcin Azumin shi kenan, idan kuma ya ki tuba to za a kashe shi a matsayin kafiri, wanda ya yi ridda daga Muslunci. Ba za a yi masa wanka ba, ba za a suturce shi a likkafani ba, ba za a yi masa Sallah ba, ba za a yi masa addu’an neman rahma ba, ba za a bisne shi a makabartan Musulmai ba, kawai za a tona rami ne a can nesa a rufe shi, don kar warinsa ya dami mutane, ‘yan’uwansa su cutu.

An farlanta Azumin Ramadhan ne a shekara ta biyu bayan Hijirah, don haka Manzon Allah (saw) ya yi Azumin Ramadhan na tsawon shekaru tara. Kuma farlantawan ya kasance ne a matakai guda biyu:
Na farko: an bayar da zabi tsakanin yin Azumin ko ciyarwa a madadin haka, duk da cewa; Azumin shi ya fi falala.
Mataki na biyu: wajabta Azumin Ramadhan din a kan kowa ba tare da zabi ba. Ya tabbata daga Salama dan Akwa’u (ra) ya ce: ((Lokacin da fadin Allah ya sauka: {Akwai fansan ciyar da miskini a kan wadanda za su iya yin Azumin}, sai ya kasance wanda ya ga dama sai ya sha ruwa ya biya fansa, har sai da Ayar da take bayanta ta sauka, sai ta soke ta)). Sahihul Bukhari (4507), Sahihu Muslim (1145).
Wato yana nufin fadin Allah: {Duk wanda ya halarci watan a cikinku to wajibi ne ya azumce shi. Duk wanda ya kasance maras lafiya ko yana halin tafiya to ya kirga Azumin a wasu ranakun daban}. [al-Baqarah (185)]. Sai Allah ya wajabta Azumin a kan kowa ba tare da zabi ba.

Azumin ba ya wajaba har sai an tabbatar da shigan watan Ramadhan, don haka ba a yin Azumin kafin shigan watan, saboda fadin Annabi (saw):
((Kar dayanku ya gabaci watan Ramadhan da Azumin rana daya ko biyu, sai dai idan mutum ya kasance yana yin wani Azumi na musamman to sai ya azumci ranar)). Bukhari (1914).

Ana yanke hukuncin shigan watan ne da dayan abubuwa guda biyu:
Na farko: ganin jinjirin watan Ramadhan. Allah ya ce:
{Duk wanda ya halarcin watan a cikinku to wajibi ne ya azumce shi}.
Da fadin Annabi (saw): ((Idan kun ga jinjirin watan to ku yi Azumi)). Bukhari (1907) Muslim (1080).
Ba a shardanta dole sai kowane mutum ya gani da kansa ba, a’a, idan mutumin da shaidarsa za ta tabbatar da shigan wata ya ga jinjirin watan shi kenan yin Azumin ya wajaba a kan kowa.
Amma sharadi ne wajen karban shaidar ganin watan sai mai ba da shaidar ya zama Musulmi baligi mai hankali, wanda ake yarda da maganarsa saboda yana da amana, kuma idonsa lafiya kalau yake. Amma kafiri ko yaro ko mahaukaci shigan wata ba ya tabbata da shaidarsu, saboda Hadisin Ibnu Abbas (ra) ya ce:
((Wani bakauye ya zo wajen Annabi (saw) sai ya ce: Lallai na ga jinjirin wata (yana nufin watan Ramadhan), sai Annabi (saw) ya ce: “Shin ka shaida babu abin bauta bisa cancanta sai Allah?” Sai ya ce: Eh. Ya ce: “Ka shaida Annabi Muhammadu Manzon Allah ne?” Ya ce: Eh. Sai Annabi (saw) ya ce: “Bilal, ka sanar da mutane gobe su yi Azumi”)). Abu Dawud (2340), Tirmiziy (691), Nasa’iy (2113), Ibnu Majah (1652).

Haka wanda aka san shi da karya, ko gaggawan ba da labari, ko mai raunin ido to shi ma ba a karban shaidarsa a ganin wata.
Kuma ko da mutum daya ne ya ba da shaidan ganin wata za a karba, saboda Hadisin Abdullahi dan Umar (ra) ya ce: ((Mutane sun nemi ganin jinjirin wata, sai na ba da labari wa Annabi (saw) cewa; na ganshi, sai ya dauki Azumin, kuma ya umurci mutane da su yi Azumin)). Abu Dawud (2342).

Duk wanda ya ga jinjirin wata bisa yakini to wajibi ne ya sanar da shugabannin hukuma, haka watan Shawwal ma. Saboda duk abin da sai da shi wajibi ya cika shi ma wajibi ne.

Amma idan mutum ya ganshi a wajen da yake ba zai iya sanar da shugabanni ba, to shi zai dauki Azumin, sai kuma ya yi iya kokarinsa wajen isar musu gwargwadon iyawarsa.

Idan shugabanni suka sanar da ganin wata a kafafen yada labarai to wajibi ne a yi aiki da sanarwar tasu, wajen shigan watan Ramadhan ko waninsa, saboda sanarwan hukuma hujja ne a Shari’a, ya wajaba a yi aiki da ita. Shi ya sa Annabi (saw) ya umurci Bilal da ya sanar da mutane ganin wata, bayan an tabbatar masa da ganin watan.

Kuma abin lura wajen shigan watan Ramadhan shi ne gani da ido ba lissafi ko amfani da ilimin taurari ba, kamar yadda Hadisai suka nuna cewa; da gani za a yi aiki.

Abu na biyu: ana yin hukunci da shigan watan Ramadhan da cikan watan Sha’aban kwana talatin, saboda wata ba ya wuce kwana talatin, kuma ba ya gaza kwana ishirin da tara. Don haka idan ba a samu tabbacin ganin wata a ranar ishirin da tara ba, imma saboda gajimare ko wani abin daban to sai a cika lissafin watan Sha’aban ya cika kwana talatin, bayan haka sai a yi hukunci da shigan watan Ramadhan. Annabi (saw) ya ce:
((Ku yi Azumi saboda ganin wata, ku sha ruwa (ranar Sallah) saboda ganinsa, amma idan an yi gajimare ya tare muku ganin watan to ku kirga (watan Sha’aban) ya cika kwana talatin)). Bukhari (1909), Muslim (1081).

Allah ya sa mu dace ga bin shiriya, ya ba mu albarkan da ke cikin wannan wata, ya taimake mu a kan yawaita ibada da aiyukan da’a a cikinsa, da nisantar saba masa. Allah ya ba mu tsaro da zaman lafiya a kasarmu, da sauran kasashen Musulmi gaba daya.

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